In the recent times resistance of bacterial pathogens to most antibacterial agents to which they are previously susceptible is on increase (Oli et al., 2012; Hart & Kariuki, 1998). Effective drugs are not within the reach of the common people especially in the resource poor nations of the world. The search for cheap alternative to antimicrobial substances in nature becomes inevitable.
Diarrhoea is the passage of unusually loose or watery stools, usually at least 3 times in a 24 h period (Huppertz, 1986). It is one of the leading causes of death in young children in developing countries; under five years of age (Parashar et al., 2003). Though caused by many other aetiological factors Shigella is a major bacterial aetiological agent.
‘Ogi’ is a popular fermented product in Western part of Africa. Apart from being a staple food it is used for weaning toddlers (Akinrele, 1990; Odunfa & Adeyele, 1985). Fermentation of ogi is usually done by lactic acid bacteria most of which have been reported to possess probiotic properties which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host (Agaliya & Jeevaratnam, 2012; Aderiye & Laleye, 2003; Ogunbanwo et al., 2003; Odunfa, 1985). Pathogenic bacteria have been reported to be inhibited by probiotic organisms. The ability of ogi to inhibit the growth of bacterial aetiological agent of diarrhea in vitro has been reported (Aderiye & David, 2013) however in vivo prebiotic & probiotic activities of ogi on Shigella dysenteriae were investigated in this study.
Materials and Methods
Preparation of ogi slurry and source of commercial feed
Grains of white maize variety (Zea mays) were bought at Oja Oba Market in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Grit, dirt and decomposing grains were removed. Two hundred gram of the sorted and washed cereal grains was weighed into sterile small plastic pails with cover containing 300ml water and steeped for 72 h at 28 ± 2oC. After steeping, the water was decanted and the grains were wet-milled. The filtrates were collected into different sterile containers for secondary fermentation for another 72 h by chance inoculants. After the secondary fermentation, the supernatant was decanted and the residue was pressed to further reduce the water contents. The commercial feed used in this study was purchased from Vetromet, a veterinary shop in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria.
Proximate analyses and mineral composition of feed samples
Ash, crude fat, crude fibre and moisture contents of the samples were determined according to AOAC (2005). Crude protein was determined as described by Pearson (1976) while carbohydrate was determined by difference. All determinations were performed in duplicates.
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(Author: Hussein H. Al-Sahlanee, Abdul-Wahab A. Sultan, Mustafa M. Al-Faize