Macrothink Institute – The Trend Setter in Digital Era Publishes Electronic Journals

Dedicated to academic publication and scientific research, this private organization leads in the field of digital scholarly publications. The institute facilitates its online readers through open access features that enable the students and researchers from all over the world to access, read, and benefit from its research journals.

Macrothink Institute (Twitter) realizes that the print versions of scholarly research journals are costly not only to the institute itself, but to the ultimate end users too. Besides, the electronic versions are far better in reach as compared to the print versions. Online scholarly journals are accessible to the masses at a highly reduced cost.

The institute also contributes to environment conservation through less paper use. Macrothink Institute provides international exposure to potential researchers as it sponsors their research work. It is indeed a commendable attempt to promote scientific research. There’s no subscription fee for reading or downloading the journals that the institute publishes.

Electronic Journal Publication – The Latest Trend

More and more publications and research institutes are now shifting to electronic publications because print versions are no longer efficient. Printed journals are costly and do not offer mass coverage. Internet connectivity and a computer device are needed to access these journals. These contain written content, graphics, and media files for better understanding of the readers. Researchers, students, universities, and several other entities benefit from electronic journals.

Though some publishers charge a certain subscription fee on annual basis or charge every time you access the publication, Macrothink’s journals are accessible essentially free of cost. In today’s electronic and digital era, no other medium can be as effective and efficient as are the electronic journals. They provide information at a click of the mouse.

Applications of Electronic Publications in the Academic World

All the recognized and reputable institutes subscribe to monthly research journals so that their students can benefit from them. Faculty also conducts research through the information obtained from such publications. It is easy and more productive to advance a research topic further, rather than starting from scratch every time. Therefore, availability of journals that contain already conducted research helps students to proceed in a particular research area while the faculty helps them research better.

Often times a promising research idea fails to proceed further or attain exposure only because of a lack of resources. However, open access facilitates the researchers as they can access lots of journals for free. Consequently, the benefit is transferred to the entire academic world.

The Role of Macrothink Institute

Macrothink Institute is indeed playing a vital role in academic and scientific research. Its electronic publications benefit people from all over the world. A strong sense of responsibility of this publisher helps to advance academic research while promoting open access journals.

Macrothink Institute Supports the Wikimedia Foundation

Macrothink Institute is a renowned name in the field of scientific research, development, and publication of research papers. It’s a private organization and publishes a number of scholarly journals covering numerous disciplines of science. The journals published by Macrothink Institute are particularly for online readers, researchers, and educators. These are made completely unrestricted for users via open access features.

The institute strongly believes in digitization, and this is the reason why all its journals are published online. Not only is it a great idea to target and serve a large number of readers, but also helps the institute to cut down on its printing costs. Anyone from any part of the world can read and download the institute’s online journals for free thus spreading education and promoting research in scientific literature.

Though Macrothink Institute is a private organization, its mission and objectives revolve around a social cause. The institute sponsors a lot of research projects that it believes are worth publishing. By financially supporting different foundations, researchers, educators, and students, the institute helps promote original research work. Wikimedia Foundation is one of those that are truly thankful to Macrothink Institute for the funds extended to the former.

Wikimedia Foundation was founded in 2003 with a goal to disseminate education effectively and efficiently throughout the world. It’s basically a charitable organization and runs through funds generated from different sources. The organization’s headquarter is located in California but serves online globally. A number of projects run in collaboration under the parent brand Wiki and the most popular one is Wikipedia.

Unwavering goals of the entity since more than a decade have enabled Wikimedia Foundation to grow by leaps and bounds. It’s indeed one of the most successful organizations in the world. As facts reveal, Wikipedia, that is the flagship domain/project of the foundation, is among the top ten high-traffic websites in the world. One can find comprehensive information about any given topic, field, or discipline at Wikipedia.

Wikimedia Foundation, as a whole, has been helping millions of online readers, students, and researchers to excel in their given fields. Free access to information is the leading cause of its success. Thanks to hundreds of donors the foundation has been operating successfully since its inception – a prominent name in this regard would be Macrothink Institute.

Wikipedia allows its users to post, edit, update, and improve any given article from its extensive database. People referring to Wikipedia get free access to information that further helps them in conducting research studies and academic projects. Be it a qualified scholar, a famous researcher, a known educator, or simply a downtown student, Wikipedia is contributing to all their success stories.

It’s important to support such a cause as it helps mankind to grow and be more knowledgeable in a given area. Often highly promising research papers do not get a chance to be published and thus benefits are never obtained from these. However, when individuals and organizations realize their social responsibilities, things start changing. By sponsoring research projects, it’s not only the donor that benefits from the outcome, but also those who refer to those published research papers.

Organizations like Macrothink Institute and Wikimedia Foundation make sure that every promising piece of work gets published. When financial and promotional resources are there, why should researchers not take a step ahead and submit their research papers? Macrothink is always in search of bright researchers and Wikimedia welcomes authentic and original content.

Macrothink Institute is a private organization dedicated to scientific research and publication. Macrothink Institute publishes online scholarly journals that are open to readers.

As a new scholarly publisher, Macrothink Institute aims to be a significant contributor to scientific development in the digital era. We recognize that traditional print journals have some disadvantages iincluding higher costs, paper consumption, low efficiency, and limited distribution while online journals are more efficient, cost less, and are environmentally friendly. That’s why we believe digital scholarly journals are the new trend for scientific publication.

Macrothink Institute Supports University of Washington NASA Space Grant

Devoted to scientific literature, scholarly publications, and research development, Macrothink Institute serves as a private organization. The institute does not only publish original and research oriented literature, but also promotes other such networks and foundations operating in the same domain. Macrothink Institute offers financial support to ensure that every talented researcher and student is given a chance to showcase their work and talent.

The institute believes in digitization. Therefore, unlike many other research journals that are printed, Macrothink Institute issues only digital versions of its research publications. Not only does it help protect the environment since it utilizes less paper, electronic journals are also cost-effective and accessible to a large segment of readers all over the world. An electronic database is all that is needed to distribute the published content.

Washington NASA Space Grant Consortium (WSGC) is a network of colleges and universities that help maintain distinct position of USA in the field of aerospace, mathematics, engineering, science and technology. The primary objective of WSGC is to promote research and education and fund projects to strengthen the State’s position in aeronautics.

Donation to front-line research helps bring authentic and original content in the limelight. No matter how brilliant a research paper is, the benefit can only be drawn once it is published and made accessible to the masses. Macrothink Institute isn’t an organization that runs on funds and donations. Instead, it extends financial support and sponsorships to ongoing research projects at a number of universities.

Individuals, foundations, and private organizations should support such a cause. Research and development as conducted by NASA Space Grant and published by Macrothink Institute are quite beneficial. Often times there are potential researchers who have incredible research papers, but fail to publish these due to a lack of financial resources.

Therefore, other developed entities make a huge difference if they help submit and publish such research projects for the benefit of all the concerned individuals and organizations. Not only the author, but millions of readers also benefit from research material. Besides, it helps the nation make more breakthroughs in science and technology thus encouraging more innovations down the line.

Several students have this mindset to grow in the field of science and technology. Even more prominent and acknowledged is the field of aerospace science and technology. It’s one of the strengths of the US and which is why private and public organizations encourage potential authors to submit their research work in said fields.

Authors and researchers get remarkable international exposure by submitting their research work on such platforms. Macrothink Institute does not only have high quality assurance and systematic network of publications, but also goes the extra mile to sponsor potential authors, if necessary. Such practices aid the country in creating brilliant minds and harnessing their potential in order to grow as a nation.

Macrothink Institute Supports Wikimedia Foundation

Recently, Macrothink Institute support Wikimedia Foundation, an American charitable organization headquartered in San Francisco, California. It is operates several online collaborative wiki projects including Wikipedia, Wiktionary and etc. Its flagship project, Wikipedia, ranks in the top-ten most-visited websites worldwide. Unlike conventional publishing firms, Macrothink Institute is an open access journal publisher. This requires collecting, archiving and allowing public research access to scientific, mathematical or general educational materials indicative of one’s scholarly efforts. Successful earlier models include TerraNova, Journal of Internet Medical Research and British Medical Journal.

Macrothink Institute also supports the Open Access Journal format for sharing definitive studies, making materials immediately available after carefully vetting hundreds of quarterly research articles or white paper submissions. Their careful review process assures all materials conform to author guidelines.

Research-based journals have widely been archived, subsidized or simply quashed by more commanding scientific nomenclature. Only few provide actual sponsorship of scientific projects, Macrothink Institute always stay positive to donate scientific or educational projects. Shared under widely accepted Creative Commons licensure, the abundance of materials Macrothink provides students, scientists and general educators far amass the general libraries, and is much quicker to read than large print books.

Now, Macrothink Institute publishes more than 20 Open Access Journals, and makes paper publications available after careful peer reviews. To a scientific publisher, how to maintain accuracy is paramount. Editorial staff is in hierarchical format, each rank having one or more editors responsible for reviewing submissions before updating journals online. Consistently publishing works from scientists, engineers, economists and cultural experts provides an opportunity to announce developments in each of those areas.

Macrothink Institute supports, through numerous international and local authors, the continuous efforts in expanding Open Access Journals. For reasons clearly stipulated, the importance of open journals elevates with each published paper, article and book.


Effects of Fermented Maize Gruel (OGI) on the Haemato-biochemical Profile of Wistar Albino Rats Challenged with Shigella Dysenteriae JBA 010

In the recent times resistance of bacterial pathogens to most antibacterial agents to which they are previously susceptible is on increase (Oli et al., 2012; Hart & Kariuki, 1998). Effective drugs are not within the reach of the common people especially in the resource poor nations of the world. The search for cheap alternative to antimicrobial substances in nature becomes inevitable.

Diarrhoea is the passage of unusually loose or watery stools, usually at least 3 times in a 24 h period (Huppertz, 1986). It is one of the leading causes of death in young children in developing countries; under five years of age (Parashar et al., 2003). Though caused by many other aetiological factors Shigella is a major bacterial aetiological agent.

‘Ogi’ is a popular fermented product in Western part of Africa. Apart from being a staple food it is used for weaning toddlers (Akinrele, 1990; Odunfa & Adeyele, 1985). Fermentation of ogi is usually done by lactic acid bacteria most of which have been reported to possess probiotic properties which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host (Agaliya & Jeevaratnam, 2012; Aderiye & Laleye, 2003; Ogunbanwo et al., 2003; Odunfa, 1985). Pathogenic bacteria have been reported to be inhibited by probiotic organisms. The ability of ogi to inhibit the growth of bacterial aetiological agent of diarrhea in vitro has been reported (Aderiye & David, 2013) however in vivo prebiotic & probiotic activities of ogi on Shigella dysenteriae were investigated in this study.

Materials and Methods

Preparation of ogi slurry and source of commercial feed

Grains of white maize variety (Zea mays) were bought at Oja Oba Market in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Grit, dirt and decomposing grains were removed. Two hundred gram of the sorted and washed cereal grains was weighed into sterile small plastic pails with cover containing 300ml water and steeped for 72 h at 28 ± 2oC. After steeping, the water was decanted and the grains were wet-milled. The filtrates were collected into different sterile containers for secondary fermentation for another 72 h by chance inoculants. After the secondary fermentation, the supernatant was decanted and the residue was pressed to further reduce the water contents. The commercial feed used in this study was purchased from Vetromet, a veterinary shop in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria.

Proximate analyses and mineral composition of feed samples

Ash, crude fat, crude fibre and moisture contents of the samples were determined according to AOAC (2005). Crude protein was determined as described by Pearson (1976) while carbohydrate was determined by difference. All determinations were performed in duplicates.

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(Author: Hussein H. Al-Sahlanee, Abdul-Wahab A. Sultan, Mustafa M. Al-Faize

 Published by Macrothink Institute)

Corrosion Inhibition of Carbon Steel in 1M HCl Solution Using Sesbania Sesban Extract

Metallic materials are still the most widely used group of materials particularly in both mechanical engineering and the transportation industry. However the usefulness of metals and alloys is constrained by one common problem known as corrosion (Buchweishaija, 2009). Corrosion is the destructive attack of a metal by chemical or electrochemical reaction with the environment (Uhlig et al., 2008). The basic cause of the corrosion of the metals is their tendency to return to their stable state. Nearly all metals are inherently unstable and it is their natural tendency to seek self-destruction by reacting with their environment to attain a state of lower energy by forming a metal compound. This is the state in which the majority of metals are found in nature (Haward, 1968). The use of inhibitors is one of the best methods of preventing metals against corrosion. Most of the corrosion inhibitors are synthetic chemicals, expensive and very hazardous to environments. Therefore, it is desirable to source for environmentally safe inhibitors. Plants represent a class of interesting source of compounds currently being exported for use in metal corrosion protection in most systems. The use of phytochemicals as corrosion inhibitors can be traced back to 1960s when tannins and their derivatives were used to protect corrosion of steel, iron and other tools (Ashassi-Sorkhabi et al., 2006).

Up till now extracts of plants leaves such as Hibiscus Subdariffa which was used by El-Hosary in 1972 (Al-Malki, 2007), Papaia (Zucchi et al., 1985), Eucalyptus which was used by Pravinar in 1993 (Buchweishaija, 2009), EmbilicaUflicianalis (Sanghvi et al., 1997), RosmarinusOfficinalis L. (Kliskic et al., 2000), LawsoniaIntermis (Al-Sehaibani et al.,2010), Tobacco (Davis et al., 2001), Opuntia (El-Etre et al., 2003), Mytruscommunis (Al-Sultan,2005), Artemisia (Bouklah et al., 2006), Eclipta alba (Shyamala et al., 2009), Fenugreek (Ehteram, 2008), Vernonia Amygdaline (Odiongenyi et al., 2009), Phaseolusaureus (Rajalakshimi et al., 2008), Piper guinensis (Ebenso et al., 2008), Combretumbracteosum (Okafor et al., 2009), CyamopsisTetragonaloba (Subhashini et al., 2010), Murrayakoenigii (Sharmila et al., 2010), Annona squamosal (Lebrini et al., 2010), Black Pepper (Dahmani et al., 2010), Moringaoleifera (Singh et al., 2010), AzadirachtaIndica (Okafor et al., 2010), Jatrophacurcas (Kumar et al., 2010), Citrulluscolocynthis (Chauhan et al., 2010), PalicoureaGuianensis (Lebrini et al., 2011), green tea (Loto, 2011), Pterocarpussoyauxi (Iloamaeke et al., 2012) (5, 6, 1) have been studied for corrosion inhibition of metals in acid and neutral medias. The present study aimed at investigating the inhibitive properties of ethanol extract of Sesbaniasesban plant leaves on the corrosion of carbon steel in 1M HCl solution.

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(Author: Hussein H. Al-Sahlanee, Abdul-Wahab A. Sultan, Mustafa M. Al-Faize

 Published by Macrothink Institute)


Cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz) is a major food crop in Nigeria, supplying about 70% of the daily calorie of over 50million people in Nigeria (Oluwole et al., 2004). At 93 million tons, cassava accounted for the largest share of root crop consumed as food in Tropical Africa in 1996 (Scott et al., 2000). It has also been estimated that cassava provides food for over 500million people in the world (Abu et al., 2006). Edible part of fresh cassava root contains 32-35% carbohydrate, 2-3% protein, 75-80% moisture, 0.1% fat, 1.0% fiber and 0.70-2.50% -Ash (Oluwole et al., 2004) .

A wide variety of foods are produced from cassava by fermentation, viz Garri, Fufu, Lafun, Attieke, Farinha de rnadioca, to mention a few (Adesina, 2001).

Cassava plants are of two (2) varieties namely; sweet cassava (Manihot utilisima) also known as the oko-yawo variety and bitter cassava (Manihot Palmata). Both variety are known to contain cyanogenic glycosides. The two major cyanogenic glycosides: linamarin and lotaustralin are hydrolysed to produce hydrocyanic or prussic acid (HCN) a poison, when it comes in to contact with the enzyme linamarase, which is released when the cells of cassava roots are ruptured (Marcus and Adesina, 2001). The principal cyanogenic glucoside is linamarin (95% of the total) while the remainder is lotaustralin. It was observed that the roots rapidly develop toxicity after grinding unless the pulp is heated immediately. (Adesina, 2001). Therefore, all forms of cassava processing decreases levels of cyanogenic glycoside and prussic acid in the final product (Marcus and Adesina, 2001).

Garri is a product, obtained by fermenting peeled, washed and grated fresh cassava roots (for about 72 hours), dewatering and toasting (Ekwu and Ugwuona 2007). In Nigeria up to 70% of harvested cassava roots are processed into garri. Garri is normally consumed by adding water and sugar to taste and eaten as a refreshing snack drink or by pouring sufficient quantities in hot water to obtain a stiffen pudden (eba) (Onabolu et al, 2002,) which may be eaten with soup or stew. Garri is usually processed using manual processing method and mechanical processing method.

Manual processing method involves the following distinct steps: peeling, grating, pressing and fermenting for 48-72 hours, sieving, toasting and separation into various particle sizes.

Mechanical processing method involves washing peeling, grating pressing, sieving, toasting and receiving without the involvement of manual operation. The liquor from the previous fermentation is used as a starter thereby reducing the fermentation period to about 6-8hours. The heating of the cassava during processing was presumed to inactivate linamarase and prevent the release of cyanide as linamarase decomposes at 72′% (Ekwu and Ehirim, 2008).

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(Author: Nwabueze Peter Okolie, Memunat N Brai, Oluwaseun M. Atotebi

 Published by Macrothink Institute)

The Use of Mulberry (Morus alba) Extract in the Mass Production of Blue Swimming Crab (Portunus pelagicus L.) Larvae to Overcome the Mortality Rate Due to Molting Syndrome

Portunus pelagicus L. is one of the commercial crabs traded widely around the world. In Indonesia, the crab species is under intensive development to meet the increasing overseas market demand. The export volume reaches 23 to 25 million tons per year. The increasing amount of crab fishing caused decrease in natural populations, in both quantity and quality. FAO (2011) in World Bank (2012) mentioned that in 2008, Indonesia contributed 20 % of the world blue swimming crab production and ranked second of the biggest producer after China. Unfortunately, along with the increase of human needs and pressure on the marine biological resources environment, the live stock of crabs in Indonesia is continually decreasing by 20 – 30% each year (Mahesa, 2010). Therefore, other methods to increase crab the supply of crab raw material is highly needed, for example through culture.

The blue swimming crab can be cultured in ponds but the seeds still rely on the catch from natural habitat so this action is still potential to press the natural population. Attempts to culture them using seeds from hatchery is still being studied, and have not yet carried out in mass production. One of the causes is that blue swimming crab seedling in hatchery has not given any consistent result yet. The survival rate of seeds usually fluctuates and is generally low. Maheswarudu (2008) reported that the highest survival rate (10.3±5.76%) from zoea-1 to Crab-1 is achieved in low density stocking (50 larvae/liter). Moreover, Juwana et al., (2010) was successful in increasing the survival rate from 2.2% to 8.7% through probiotic administration. Zmora et al., in 2005 then reported that cannibalism is one the factors causing high mortality, so it is suggested to use the shelter and size grading, and decrease stock density.

The main problem in the blue swimming crab seedling is mortality (Soundarapandian et al., 2008). Mortality is caused by various factors, such as disease attack (Govindasamy & Srinivasan, 2012; Talpur et al., 2011a; Talpur et al., 2011b), molting syndrome (Hamasaki et al., 2002 and cannibalism (Soundarapandian et al., 2008). Many ways have been done to overcome those problems, such as nutrition enrichment of natural food using HUFA to increase EPA and DHA in order to increase larval resistance (Hamasaki et al., 2002; Samuel et al., 2011) by using probiotic to control the pathogenic bacterial attack, Vibrio (Juwana et al., 2010), adjusting the amount and feeding time of natural food (Ikhwanuddin et al., 2012; Redzuari et al., 2012), using shelter and size grading, and reducing stock to reduce cannibalism (Zmora et al., 2005). Nevertheless, litte investigation has focused on the control on molting syndrome through hormonal regulation controlling molting syndrome in crab larvae.

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(Author: Yushinta Fujaya, Dody Dharmawan Trijuno, Andi Nikhlani, Indra Cahyono, Hasnidar Hasnidar

 Published by Macrothink Institute)

Efficacy of Tart Cherry Juice to Reduce Inflammation Biomarkers among Women with Inflammatory Osteoarthritis (OA)

Epidemiological evidence suggests that a high intake of plant foods is associated with lower risk of chronic diseases. Recently, numerous antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents have been identified in plants purported to reduce illness and disease associated with inflammation and tissue damage. Specifically, the disease modifying agents include cyclo-oxygenase inhibitory flavonoides (Seeram, Bourquin, & Nair, 2001; Wang et al., 1999) and anthocynanins with high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities (Blando, Gerardi, & Nicoletti, 2004; Tall et al., 2004). These have been identified in natural foods from black tea to tart cherries to fish oil. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents have been identified in tart cherries, and a study among healthy, non-exercising individuals demonstrated that sweet cherry consumption decreased serum inflammatory biomarkers (Kelley, Rasooly, Jacob, Kader, & Mackey, 2006). This has led to speculation that consumption of tart cherries may be effective in alleviating symptoms in inflammatory conditions (Tall et al., 2004).

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common syndrome affecting 65 million Americans characterized by pain and disability (Rayman & Callaghan, 2006; Felson et al., 2000). Pain relief and improvement of functional disability are the main goals of treatment. A number of studies have looked at dietary factors on inflammation in arthritis patients and some have been purported to improve arthritis pain and function (Pattison et al., 2007). Such natural anti-inflammatory products may be beneficial for the management and treatment of inflammatory diseases without the adverse side effects. Tart cherries have been shown to reduce pain and inflammation in animals and humans (Connolly, McHugh, Padilla-Zakour, Carlson, & Sayers, 2006; Kuehl, Perrier, Elliot, & Chesnutt, 2010).

This study was designed to assess the anti-inflammatory effects of tart cherry juice among 40-70 year old inflammatory OA subjects during a randomized, double-blind placebo controlled design. The study’s outcomes were to assess changes in serum biomarkers of inflammation.

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(Author: Kerry S. Kuehl, Diane L. Elliot, Adriana E. Sleigh, Jennifer L. Smith

 Published by Macrothink Institute)

Influence of Altitude Variation on Trigonelline Content during Ontogeny of Coffea Canephora Fruit

Coffee is a rich source of bioactive metabolites such as caffeine, trigonelline, chlorogenic acid, arabinogalactans, melanoidins along with ash, organic acids, and caffeic acid etc and their profile in beans is important and helpful to know the quality of coffee brew (Sridevi & Giridhar, 2008). Among these caffeine, CGAs and trigonelline are major compounds which imparts bitterness in coffee, apart from their diverse physiological functions in humans (Clifford & Wilson, 1985). Intake of such bioactive compounds from coffee drink may be associated with either health benefits or risks. Coffee consumption has been correlated to reduced risk of colon rectal cancer (Lee, Inouem, Otani, Iwasaki, Sasazuki & Tsugane, 2007), Type 2 diabetes (Campos & Baylin, 2007) and Alzheimer’s disease (Barranco, Allam, Serrano Del Castillo & Fernandez, 2007). Recent studies demonstrated caffeine’s positive effects such as pshychoactive response and neurological condition such as Parkinson disease infant hyperactivity, and metabolic disorder like diabetic gallstones and liver function (Dorea & da Costa, 2005). Similarly, coffee bean contains trigonelline (N-methylnicotinic acid or N-methylbetaine of pyridine-3-carboxylic acid) as the second abundant alkaloid compound and it thermally converted to nicotinic acid (antipellagra factor) and some flavour compounds during roasting (Taguchi, 1988). In addition it is considered important for taste and nutrition (Adrian & Fragne, 1991).

Trigonelline content in green coffee beans is in the range of 0.88 to 1.77% in Arabica, 0.75 to 1.24% in Robusta coffee (Ky, Doulbeau, Guyot, Chareir, Hamon, Louarn & Noirot, 2000a), 1.02% in C. pseudozangaeboriae and 0.57% of DMB in C. liberica var Deweveri (Ky, Guyot, Louran, Hamon, & Noirot, 2000b) respectively. Several health promoting properties such as hypoglycaemic, hypocholesterolemic, antitumor, antimigraine, or antiseptic effects have been attributed to triogonelline as cited in Allred, Yackley, Vanamala and Allred (2009). As a biomarker, trigonelline contains inherent measurable biological activity and is a unique compound with many diverse properties. Several studies have attributed the anticancer properties of coffee to metabolites other than caffeine (Hirose, Niwa, Wakai, Matsio, Nakanishi & Tajma, 2007) and the same was further strengthened by a recent study which showed phytoestrogenic nature of trigonelline from coffee beans (Allred et al., 2009).

Trigonellline is synthesized by the methylation of nicotinic acid by S-adenosyl-L-Methionine (SAM) dependent nicotinate N-Methyltransferase (EC which has been found in crude extracts of pea (Joshi & Handler, 1960) and in coffee leaves (Taguchi, Yamaki Sakaguchi & Shimabayashi, 1987). Trigonelline and its synthetic ability from nicotinic acid are distributed in all parts of coffee seedlings (Zheng & Ashihara, 2004; Mazzafera, 1991). However the levels of nicotinic acid are quite less compared to trigonelline as most of the nicotinic acid is converted to trigonelline. In raw coffee beans NA is in the range of 16-44 μg/g (Hughes & Smith, 1946; Carvalho,1962; Casal, Olivera, & Ferreira, 2000). During roasting trigonelline partially degrades to produce pyridines and nicotinic acid and other minor compounds which impart flavour and aroma, hence essential from organoleptic features point of view. Various studies indicate that trigonelline demethylating enzyme activity leads to nicotinic acid production (Taguchi & Shimabayashi, 1983) and also by pyrolysis of trigonelline (Viani & Horman, 1974). The demand for high quality coffee is rapidly increased over the last few years and is still expected to increase. Though arabica coffee brewed from beans of C. arabica is preferred as filter coffee, robusta coffee from C. canephora too is having importance in global market as it is used as soluble coffee (instant coffee).


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(Author: Sridevi V., Giridhar Parvatam

 Published by Macrothink Institute)