Modeling and Optimization of Adsorption of Heavy Metal Ions onto Local Activated Carbon

Heavy metal ions such as copper, iron, nickel, lead, etc. in the environment are of major concern due to their toxicity to many life forms. Unlike organic pollutants, which are susceptible to biological degradation, metal ions do not degrade into any harmless end products (Mohammadiet al., 2010) and tend to accumulate causing several diseases and health disorders in humans, and other living organisms (Rosa et al., 2008). Several industrial activities are important sources ofenvironmental pollution due to their high content of several heavy metal ions(Dada et al., 2012).

Wide range of various treatment techniques available for the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions such as ion exchange, biodegradation, oxidation, solvent extraction, chemical precipitation, flotation, biosorption, electrolytic recovery, membrane separation and adsorption have been reported to be used for removal of heavy metal ions from industrialeffluents (Al-tameemi et al., 2012; Deosarkar,2012). However, adsorption has been universally accepted as one of the most effective pollutant removal process, with low cost, ease in handling, low consumption of reagents, as well as scope for recovery of value added components through desorption and regeneration of adsorbent(Dada et al., 2012).

Adsorption is collection of adsorbate on the surface of adsorbent due to force of attraction(Deosarkar,2012). The practical applications of adsorption can be at separation and purification of liquid and gas mixtures, bulk chemicals, drying gases and liquids before loading them into industrial systems, removal of impurities from liquid and gas media, recovery of chemicals from industrial and vent gases and water purification(Prabakaran&Arivoli,2012). Activated carbon is the most widely used adsorbent due to its excellent adsorption capability for heavy metals. However, the use of these methods is often limited due to the high cost, which makes them unfavorable for the needs of developing countries.

Many reports have been investigatedthe low-cost adsorbents for Adsorption of heavy metals from aqueous solutions(Souag et al., 2009)such as date pits(Belhachemi et al., 2009) bamboo(Kannan&Veemaraj, 2009) oil palm fibre(Hameedet al., 2011;Nwabanne&Igbokwe, 2012), coconut shell(Satya et al., 1997), apricot stones (Philip&Girgis, 1996), sugar beet bagasse (Jaguaribe et al., 2000), waste tires(Teng et al., 2000;Juan et al., 2005;Mui et al., 2010), coconut husk, seed shell (Gueu et al.,2006), dates stones (Alhamed&Bamufleh, 2008), sun flower (Surchi, 2011), asphaltic carbon(Ambursa et al., 2011), Henna Leaves (Shanthi&Selvarajan, 2012).The intrinsic properties of activated carbon are dependent on the raw material source. The source of raw material was based on the need for developing low cost absorbent for pollution control as well as reducing the effect of environmental degradation poised by agricultural waste(Itodo H. &Itodo A., 2010).

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(Author: Abbas Sabah Thajeel

 Published by Macrothink Institute)

Zoning Model on Conservation in the Ecosystem Islands Southeast Aru

Ecosystem conservation was an effort to protect, to preserve, and to utilize the ecosystem function as the supporting habitat for the living of fish resources either for recent or future days (Adams et al, 2004). Indeed, ecosystem conservation was realized through the protection of habitat and population of the fish, the research and development, the utilization of fish resource and environmental service, the development of community socio-economic, the supervision and control, and/or the monitoring and evaluation. Community-based conservation and its development became a new paradigm either for the government or non-government organization with great engagement within conservation activity (Browder, 2002; Gjertsen, 2005). Great complexity was apparent when the question whether the conservation had achieved the expectation should be answered because the achievement was always related to the utilization rate of human (Jackson and Sala, 2001; Stachowitsch, 2003; Halpern et al, 2008). Human resource has very big effect in the coastal ecosystem. The conflict of human activities only gave simultaneous pressure and exploitation against coastal natural resources (Crain et al., 2008; Darling and Côté, 2008; Doak et al., 2008; Halpern et al., 2008).

A method for effective management of coastal and sea resources was by developing Waters Conservation Area (KKP). This method involved allocating some proportions of coast and sea areas to be used as the protection site for important resource, such as for good site for spawning and breeding. The zoning plan of Waters Conservation Area was aligned with Act No.31 of 2004 but revised by Act No. 45 of 2009 about Fishery, and also complying with Government Regulation No. 60 of 2007 about Fish Resource Conservation. Both laws explained that KKP zoning consisted of core zone, sustainable fishery zone, utilization zone, and other zone. For specific cases, there were sub-zones which remained as part of these four main zones but its determination was always based on potential, characteristic and socio-economical consideration of local community.

Southeast Aru Area represented a conservation area in Indonesia. This area was stated as conservation area based on the survey result of biophysical and socio-economical potentials. This survey showed that this area must be retained because it had endemic resources which should be protected, including turtle, dugong, crocodile, and its ecosystem diversity. To understand the relationship between human pressure and ecosystem status in the area, it was very important to develop spatial and zoning plans (Douvere, 2008). It seemed difficult to understand the relationship between human activity and ecosystem status because of (1) pressure rate against ecosystem (Shears dan Ross, 2010) and (2) limited fundamental information about ecosystem in relation to its status and impact potential (Halpern et al, 2008; Fraschetti et al, 2009).

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(Author: Fernando D.W, Dangeubun, B. Wiryawan, Mustarudin Mustarudin, A. Purbayanto, J. M. S. Tetelepta

 Published by Macrothink Institute)

Vescular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Diversity and Morphotypes, from Different Land Use of the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania

Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizas (VAM) are extremely successful fungi that form mutualistic symbioses with about two thirds of all plant species (Smith & Read 1997). VAM fungi are of great ecological importance since arbuscular mycorrhizae are the most widespread plant symbiosis that often improves plant productivity (Fedderman et al., 2010). The main advantage of mycorrhizae to the host plants are increased efficiency of mycorrhizal roots versus non mycorrhizal roots caused by the active uptake and transport of nutrients especially immobile minerals like P, Zn and Cu (Phiri et al., 2003; Jamal et al., 2002). This work is achieved by the interconnected networks of external hyphae which act as an additional catchment and absorbing surface in the soil (Sharma, 2004).

Gallaud (1905) described two morpho types of the VAM fungi as the Arum type and Paris type. The Arum-type form extensive intercellular hyphae in air spaces between cortical cells and invaginate the plasma membrane of the cells as short side branches to form arbuscules while the Paris type, the colonization spreads from cell to cell in the cortex thus develop intracellular hyphal coils that frequently have intercalary arbuscules. Most species of plants including grasses, herbs, and tropical trees form Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (Gerdemann, 1965, 1968). While the VAM fungi are benefited with carbon substrates from plants and shelter in return to the host plant they provide enormous benefits to their host. Among them include improving plant nutrition, (Van der Heijden et al., 1998), help to control pests and fungal pathogens (Pozo et al., 1996, 2010), increase uptake and transport of soil nutrients (Cox et al., 1975; Abbot & Robson, 1984; Newman & Reddel, 1987) enhancing water movement, Auge, 2001), promote positive diversity (Laura et al., 2010) as well as reducing pathogenic infections to their host (Dehne, 1982; Fitter, 1986).

In developed countries VAM fungi have been substantially studied (Cox et al., 1975; Abbot & Robson, 1984; Newman & Reddel, 1987, Laura et al., 2010) due to its importance in forest conservation. Although SNP is hot spot of biodiversity, the studies on the fungi and specifically the VAM fungi has been completely neglected, yet successful conservation efforts in any ecosystems may require understanding of fungi communities in terms of ecology and distribution. Apart from Tibuhwa et al. (2011) and Tibuhwa (2011, 2012) who mainly examined the macro-fungi, no any studied on fungi that have been done in the SNP. This study therefore, examined the VAM fungi and establishes the effect of the land types to the VAM morphotypes, diversity and abundance in the SNP.

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(Author: Salehe Twahir, Donatha Damian Tibuhwa

 Published by Macrothink Institute)

A Hot-topic based Distribution and Notification of Events in Pub/Sub Mobile Brokers.

The future Internet of Things (IoT) demands a closer breach between fixed and mobile envi- ronments in the content plane; so, even if devices are loose coupled the information they produce should be available from end-to-end. In this context, the Publish/Subscribe (Pub/Sub) paradigm [1] has emerged as an attractive communication model for exchanging content be- cause of its asynchronous, time and process decoupled style. On the current Internet, the Pub/Sub systems have been successfully extended to content dissemination services such as: PubSubHubbub [2] as well as they have being considered as a promising content-centric communication model for Future Internet Architectures [3][4]. Despite this, there are still challenges concerning how to deal with the heterogeneity [5]across entities that produce and consume content. Some of these entities can be mobile devices with low performance, non-stable connectivity and tight energy constrains; thus, their communication capabilities largely differ from fixed devices (e.g. a server in a datacenter).

Publish/Subscribe systems, which are also knows as event-based systems, are basically com- posed of three main components [6] publishers which are the content producers, subscribers that express their willingness to consume specific content; and finally brokers that put in contact publishers and subscribers by storing and forwarding this information. Depending on the scenario, wireless devices can perform as publishers, subscribers or brokers; so their ca- pability of consuming, publishing and matching content (in the form of events) depends on the expressiveness [5] of the subscription language of the Pub/Sub network.

In future IoT scenarios, it could be the case that even if a mobile device is capable of per- forming as a broker (e.g. a mobile phone, laptop, or medical wireless handhelds), it could still lack of network and processing capabilities in comparison with fixed devices. In addition, as these devices could appear and disappear at any moment they should perform as modular and pluggable components. In this paper we propose solutions that target these scenarios in the form of subscription distribution, notification models and hot-topic classification.

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(Author: Augusto Morales, Tomas Robles, Ramon Alcarria, Edwin Cedeño

 Published by Macrothink Institute)

Production, Proximate and Sensory Evaluation of Rhynchophorus Phoenicis (F) Larva Paste

Insects are used as human food in many parts of the world. In some developing countries, it is viewed with aversion but elsewhere, it is seen as a wise utilization of natural resources because insects form a greater part of the phylum arthropods which dominates the animal kingdom. The larva of the beetle Rhynochophorus phoenicis (F) is cherished as food among the many communities in Nigeria (Okaranye and Ikewuchi, 2008) and around the world especially in those places where palms (oil, raphia and coconut) are cultivated (Defoliat, 1992; Choon-Fah et al, 2008).

Ekrakene and Igeleke (2007) reported that in the Niger Delta region and Eastern States of Nigeria, the Larva is a cherished delicacy and can be seen hawked along major roads, markets and motor packs in Edo and Delta States of Nigeria. In 1976, Oliveira et al studied the nutritional compositions of four insect including Rhynchophorus phoenicis and they observed that it was high in fat and protein. They reported that the larvae are rich sources of animal fat, most valuable sources of unsaturated fatty acids. Okaranye and Ikewuchi (2008) observed a high protein value of 31.61% wet basis with a protein score of 72.97%. They concluded that the protein of the larvae is rich in essential amino acids, high in methionine, histidine and phenylalanine while limiting only in valine. Nzikou et al (2010) reported that the larva as a good source of minerals with sodium (832.59 ± 03mg/100g) as the highest, followed in descending order by magnesium (132.7 ± 0.20 mg/100g); calcium (72.4 ± 0.22 mg/100g) and potassium (22.89 ± 1.7 mg/100g).

In view of the nutritional qualities of Rhynchophorus phoenicis (F) larva and the high level of consumption of this larvae in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria, this study is therefore aimed at the production of the larvae into a paste, investigating the utilization of the paste as a filler for pies and sandwich and finally to evaluate the sensory and general acceptability of the products (pies and sandwich) when compared to commercially produced samples.

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(Author: David B. Kiin-Kabari, Ogbonda K.H

 Published by Macrothink Institute)

Effect of Freezing on Some Plant Toxins and Micronutrients in the Leaves of Amaranthus Cruentus

Amaranthus cruentus is an important leafy vegetable, grown throughout the temperate and tropical regions of the world. It is an herbaceous annual leafy vegetable that can be produced for fresh market in 4 – 6 weeks after planting (Schippers, 2000). The vegetable can be produced all the year round depending on the availability of water. Amaranthus cruentus requires loamy to sandy loam soil for good yield and does well in soils with high organic matter content (Grubben, 1986). There are about 60 species of Amaranthus and several of them are cultivated as leafy vegetables, cereals or ornamental plants (Schippers, 2000; He, 2002; Dhellot et al., 2006). The leaves of amaranthus combined with condiments are used to prepare sauce in Africa (Oke, 1983; Mepha et al., 2007; Akubugwo et al., 2007).

Amaranthus cruentus has a high nutritional value because of the high contents of vitamins such as β-carotene (precursor of vitamin A), vitamin B6, vitamin C, riboflavin, and folate, as well as dietary mineral elements including calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, copper, and manganese (Makus, 1984; Makus and Davis, 1984; Sussan and Anne, 1988; Stallknecht and Schaeffer, 1993). The vegetable is also rich in lysine, an essential amino acid that is deficient in diets based on cereals and tubers (Schipper, 2000). The vegetable also contain some plant toxins such cyanide, oxalates, nitrate, phytate and other secondary plant metabolites that have negative effect on animals and humans health at high concentrations (Macrae et al., 1997; Ogbadoyi et al., 2011; Musa et al., 2011). The concentrations of the nutrients and toxic substances in vegetables after harvesting are affected by the post-harvest treatment. It is on this basis that the research was conducted to determine the effect of freezing on the concentrations of some phytotoxins and micronutrients in Amaranthus cruentus.

 

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(Author: Amanabo Musa, Emmanuel O. Ogbadoyi

 Published by Macrothink Institute)

Evaluation of Smart Grid Simulation System with Power Stabilization by EV

Recently, the scarcity of natural resources and rapid increases in energy demands have been raised as worldwide problems; thus, it has become necessary to promote renewable energy generation as a means of energy conservation. As a result, power plants of renewable energies draw attentions such as solar power, wind power, geothermal power, and so on. They are expected not only from the viewpoint of energy demands but also environmental consciousness. However, controlling output power for renewable energy generation is difficult because energy output is subject to violent fluctuations, different from the traditional power source like thermal power, hydroelectric power, and atomic power. To address this issue, attention has been focused on the potential for Smart Grid to work efficiently in energy networks.

While there are various definitions for Smart Grid depending on literatures, a typical idea is to control the power grids by the information and communication technology (ICT) to improve the efficiency of the power grids. It also includes power plants of renewable energies to supplement the traditional power plants in many cases [1]. Although it is preferable to include renewable energies from the viewpoint of energy demands problem, they cannot provide a stable energy as mentioned above. Therefore, information gathered and analyzed based on ICT is used to supply a stable energy in Smart Grid.

As another viewpoint of the energy demands and environmental consciousness, the electric vehicle (EV) is also drawing attention recently. EV is closely related to the Smart Grid. Each EV has a high-capacity battery, which is not only used as a vehicle but is also treated as a power resource that can charge and discharge energy as needed. This energy exchange is referred to as ‘Vehicle-to-Grid’ (V2G), which is expected to be used as a method of stable energy supply in the Smart Grid.

However, V2G power grids are different from traditional power grids that deliver electricity from power plants to users in a single direction. Power resources in V2G power grids are widely distributed within a given area, and electric transmission is bidirectional. In this case, meticulous control regulation to stabilize power flow is necessary, i.e., it is necessary to monitor the electric potential of each point on the grid, to exchange information through the network and to control the distribution of power sources. In such a case, the Smart Grid is the best platform for gathering and analyzing the information.

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(Author: Keiko Karaishi, Masato Oguchi

 Published by Macrothink Institute)

Green Communications and Networking

Global warming and climate change have been a growing worldwide concern. Six sources, i.e., transportation, power, buildings, industry, agriculture and forestry, and land use, have been identified as major contributors to the rise of global carbon dioxide (CO2). The mobile industry is seen as a potential enabler to reduce greenhouse gases contributed by these six sources provided that appropriate measures are implemented. On the other hand, the mobile industry itself will also contribute to CO2 emission through network operations, mobile equipment, etc. To meet the requirement of low-carbon economy development, it is necessary to reduce the operation expenditure or energy consumption of mobile networks, while maintaining acceptable quality of service. This special issue explores and explains the scope and challenges of designing, building, and deploying GreeNets. In this regard, this special issue considers high-level contributions considering different topics including green mobile networks, system architectures, networking & communication protocols, applications, test-bed and prototype, traffic balance and energy-efficient cooperation transmission, system and application issues related to GreeNets.

Along its four papers, protocols and algorithms solutions are presented, furnishing important contributions to the state of the art and offering, at the same time, an important updated overview about emerging communication technologies for Green Communications and Networks.

The paper entitled “EE-ARQ: a Green ARQ-Based Algorithm for the Transmission of Video Streams on Noise Wireless Channels” [1], proposed by Alfio Lombardo, Carla Panarello, and Giovanni Schembra addresses an important issue related with the increase of the energy efficiency of telecommunications networks, and specifically wireless devices that present the highest energy consumption coefficient per bit transmitted among all the networking devices. However, making a network device green can cause performance deterioration. The target of this paper is to propose a new algorithm for the transmission of multiplexed rate-controlled multimedia streams over wireless channels. The algorithm is an energy-efficient variant of ARQ to exploit the correlation of the wireless channel behavior. In addition, in order to compensate transmission bandwidth reduction due to the energy saving policies, a cross-layer approach is applied introducing a source Rate Controller working to modify the video quality according to the state of the transmission buffer. An analytical model of the whole system is presented in order to evaluate performance and provide some guidelines to design the configuration parameters of the proposed algorithm.

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(Author: Joel Rodrigues

 Published by Macrothink Institute)

Macrozoobenthos Soft Soils of the Far Eastern Marine Biosphere Reserve

Composition and distribution of the benthic fauna of the soft soils of the Far Eastern Marine Biosphere State Nature Reserve are still not sufficiently explored. In 1963, the hydrobiological monitoring in this area were conducted only in waters of the bays Sivuch’ya and Kalevala (Mikulich & Biryulina, 1970). Expedition of the Pacific Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography (TINRO), in the 70 ‘s, who studied the patterns of distribution of benthos in the Peter the Great Gulf, received data for six stations, located south of the island Furugelm (Klimova, 1971; Pavluchkov, 1975). Research on the southern section of the reserve is conducted by specialists of the Institute of Marine Biology (IMB) in 1980-1987 to inventory the populations of benthic invertebrates and explore some factors were mostly not published or contains a little informative and hard-to-reach theses (Gulbin & Ozolinsh, 1986, 1989; Ozolinsh, 1986).

In 1996, IMB was the first integrated ecological expedition in the South-western part of the Peter the Great Gulf and the mouth of the Tumannaya river. The main objective of research was to examine hydrological and hydrochemical parameters, the level of contamination, and the condition of the benthic and pelagic communities (Belan, 2000; Orlova et al., 2000; Shulkin & Moshchenko, 2000) but the data on the composition and structure of the benthic communities of the soft soils for all areas of the reserve are not yet available. The purpose of this article to fill a gap in the characterization of this faunal composition and main regularities of distribution of macrobenthos bottom-dwelling communities of soft soils.

Marine Reserve area is 64311.6 hectares (643.116 km2) is about 10% of the Peter the Great Gulf of the Japan Sea. It would seem, is not very much, but at the same time, the reserve area is superior to the territory of those States, such as Bahrain, Liechtenstein, Malta and two dozen others. The island and free-standing sea rock outcrops form columnar rocks – kekura occupy only about 1.5% of the area of the reserve, the rest-area (actually, reserve, named after the Marine.-Special aesthetic, scientific and historical value reserve. a total of 10 islands and more than 20 smaller islets, rocks and kekuras, often do not have their own names on the map. the largest island – Bol’shoi Pelis, its area is about 410 acres (Figure 1).

In 2006-2008, 2010, took place the hydrobiological shooting on soft soil at 119 stations and cuts in the reserve and surrounding areas 9 areas (Figure. 2). Sampling conducted from June to September from on board the m/v “Professor Nasonov”and “Vnimatel’nyi”. Tests chose of grab Van-Wines with an area of 0.25 m2 at a depth of 40 m, furthermore, at each station, produced records of macrobenthos in autonomous diving gear with square 5 m2. Soil elutriate on a sieve with mesh 0.1 mm.

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(Author: Latypov Yuri Yakovlevich

 Published by Macrothink Institute)

Experimental Verification of Formulae for Natural Seiche Frequencies in a Two-layer Fluid with the Free Surface

A seiche is a standing wave in an enclosed or partially enclosed body of water (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seiche). Seiches generate significant horizontal and vertical velocities of water movements. It is unpleasant for ships and is essential for ecology. Both surface and internal seiches exist in water with stable density stratification. There are the explicit theoretical formulae for the wavelengths and frequencies of the different seiche modes in the case of homogeneous initially quiescent fluid filling a rectangular basin with the flat horizontal bottom (Kochin et al., 1963). The linear theory of the potential motion of fluid is used in the theory so the fluid viscosity is not taken into account. The results of an experimental verification of these formulae are contained in Bukreev (2011). The empirical formulae for surface seiches in basins of more complex forms may be found in Rabinovich, (2009).

The explicit formulae are available in Phillips (1967) and Dotsenko and Miklashevskaya (2010) or can also be derived (see below) in the case of a two-layer fluid. Only a two-layer fluid under a horizontal cover was considered in Phillips (1967). The so-cold long wave approximation in the framework of the cited theory was used in Dotsenko & Miklashevskaya, (2010). The theories give relative amplitudes of seiches only. Particular values of the amplitudes depend on the type of disturbance and its intensity. Verification of the theoretical formulae for the frequency oscillations due to surface and internal seiches in a two-layer fluid in controlled laboratory conditions was the main aim of the present work.

Natural seiches are generated by wind and atmospheric pressure variations, seismic activity, tsunamis, landslides, etc. The total property of these disturbances is their relative brevity. As the results, progressive waves are generated at first (Boegman et al., 2005). Seiches are born after the reflection of the progressive waves and are superimposed on the last. As a rule, the same properties of perturbations and waves are typical for laboratory experiments. This is also true for the present work, in which the waves were generated just as it has been done in the experiments of Thorpe (1971); Horn et al. (2001); Boegman (2004); Boegman et al. (2005). Only internal waves were studied in these experiments. Thorpe (1971) received the classical patterns of the shear instability in a two-layer fluid. Progressive internal surges in the form of the moving hydraulic jump were the main object of attenuation in the experiment of Horn et al. (2001); Boegman (2004).

Both surface and internal seiches are specially extracted in the present experiments and theoretical formulae for the wavelengths and frequencies of seiche oscillations are revised on this refined base. That is the main novelty of the present paper.

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(Author: Victor Ivanovich Bukreev, Victor Vasilievich Zykov, Alexey Vladimirovich Chebotnikov

 Published by Macrothink Institute)